Chronology comes from the Greek word chronos,
meaning time. Therefore, chronological sequencing is sequencing
that occurs over time.
Performance objectives are sequenced by topic.
For example, say you were creating a course for a new machine. You might
want to cover: How to Operate the Machine, How to Maintain the Machine,
Safety Precautions, et cetera.
With whole-to-part sequencing, you want to give
learners the BIG picture of the topic you are teaching, and then "specialize"
in the specifics. For example, if you wanted to talk about starters on
an engine, you would want to review the major parts of an engine and what
they do. Then you could zero in on the starter and talk about it in depth.
This sequencing strategy works well for people who are new to a subject
or subject area.
Part-to-Whole sequencing, on the other hand,
works well with experienced learners. If you were teaching the specifics
of a new starter, you would start with the specifics first, then talk about
the various types of engines on which the starter could be used.
Experienced teachers and trainers have long advised
new teachers and trainers to find out what your students know, then start
teaching from what they know. It is the logic that underlies the concept
This is a dramatic strategy that should be used
with caution. Used correctly, trainees will experience an Ah-Ha! experience
when they suddenly see how various pieces of information fit together.
Be careful. If there is no Ah-Ha realization, trainees will leave your
training room confused and frustrated.
Perhaps the most common strategy for sequencing
performance objectives, because it is often based upon a manufacturing
or assembly process.
Think back to high school. Chances are you had
four years of english, math, history / social studies, and science. Each
year, the courses built on the previous year and were progressively harder.
What you went through was Part-to-Part-to-Part Sequencing.
Now think back to college. During your first
two years, you spent most of your time taking required courses. It was
only in your Junior and Senior years were you able to work on your major,
take some courses for a minor, and fill out the rest of your program with